Menopause/Hormone therapy

Menopause is a sometimes difficult transition characterized by the cessation of menses and loss of estrogen. Estrogen loss can cause hot flushes as well as other complications after menopause. We have identified effects of diminishing ovarian function on cardiovascular disease, skin tone, and breast cancer. We are currently participating in a national trial to asses the effects of early initiation of hormone therapy. Hormone therapy can relieve these symptoms as well as provide many other benefits, yet also carry risk. Some of the benefits and risks likely depend on when hormone therapy is started. We are one of eight Medical centers participating in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). KEEPS is a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial of 720 women designed to provide prospective data on the risks and benefits of early menopausal hormone therapy, particularly as it relates to the progression of atherosclerosis. The results of the Women's Health Initiative estrogen plus progestin trial, which was halted by the National Institutes of Health in July 2002, prompted a consortium of health researchers to study the risks and benefits of menopausal hormone therapy on a younger subset of women who recently entered menopause.

As an ancillary trial to KEEPS, we are looking at the effect of hormone therapy on skin elasticity and wrinkles. This prospective randomized trial will follow women using hormone therapy or placebo with yearly skin exams for five years. Others in the Yale KEEPS center will be looking at the effect of estrogen on osteoclast signaling, Mood, Cognitive function, autonomic tone.

  • Chu MC, Rath KM, Huie JL and Taylor HS. Diminished ovarian reserved in normal cycling women is a predictor of unfavorable lipid levels and increased cardiovascular risks. Hum Reprod 2003, 18(8):1570- 1573.
  • Stachenfeld N and Taylor HS. Effects of estrogen and progesterone administration on extracellular fluid. J Appl Physiol 2004, 96(3):1011-1018.
  • Taylor HS. Genetic vs. hormonal factors in lipid metabolism in women. (Letter) JAMA 2004, 291(4):424-425.
  • Chu MC, Selam B and Taylor HS. HOXA10 Regulates p53 Expression and Matrigel Invasion in Human Breast Cancer Cells. Cancer Biology and Therapy 2004, 3(6):568-572.
  • Taylor HS, Naftolin F. Stopping Habits. (Correspondence) Lancet 2004, 363(9419):1476.
  • Naftolin F, Taylor HS, Karas R, Brinton E. Newman I, Clarkson TB, Mendelsohn M, Lobo RA, Judelson DR, Nachtigall LE, Heward CB, Hecht H, Jaff MR and Harman SM. The Women's Health Initiative (WIH) could not have detected cardioprotective effects of starting hormone therapy (HT) during the menopausal transition. Fertil Steril 2004, 81(6):1498-1501.
  • Wolff EF, Narayan D and Taylor HS. Long-term effects on hormone therapy on skin rigidity and wrinkles. Fertil Steril 2005, 84(2):285-288.
  • Taylor HS. Judging a book by its cover: Estrogen and skin aging. Fertil Steril 2005, 84(2):295.
  • Javanovick K and Taylor HS. Individual dose response of insulin sensitivity to estrogen therapy. J Reprod Med (In Press).